It is a study of control of matter on an atomic and molecule scale, this deal with structure of the Size 1 nanometer and 100 nanometer and involves
in developing material with that size,
just to understand, width of single human hair is around 80,000 nanometer, Head of pin is one millimeter, Human red blood cell is 2.5
micrometer in size, but carbon nanotube is 2 nanometer in size.
Nanometer is very small i.e. 10-9 but, it is still large compared to the atomic scale. An atom has a diameter of about 0.1 nm. An atom's nucleus is
much smaller -- about 0.00001 nm. Atoms are the building blocks for all matter in our universe. You and everything around you are made of
atoms. Nature has perfected the science of manufacturing matter molecularly.
For instance, our bodies are assembled in a specific manner from millions of living cells. Cells are nature's Nano machines. At the atomic scale,
elements are at their most basic level. On the Nano scale, we can potentially put these atoms together to make almost anything.
The word Nano is a scientific prefix that stands for 10-9 or one-billionth; the word itself comes from the Greek word Nano, meaning dwarf.
At this level i.e. at Nano level, properties of the material differ significantly from those at a larger scale. Products based on nanotechnology are
already in use and analysts expect markets to grow by hundreds of billions of euros during this decade. ”
The research and applications of the nanotechnology are many and are equally diverse, ranging from making simple physics components smaller
to completely new approaches based upon molecular self-assembly, from developing new materials with dimensions on the Nano scale to direct
control of matter on the atomic scale.
Various applications of the Nanotechnology are in
1 .Medicine -The use of nanotechnology in medicine offers some exciting possibilities. Nanotechnology in medicine involves applications of
nanoparticles and manufacturing of Nano-robots to make repairs at the cellular level which may detect and treat damage to the human body and
disease in the future .
Nanoparticles are used to deliver drugs, heat, light or other substances to specific types of cells (such as cancer cells). Particles are engineered so
that they are attracted to diseased cells, which allow direct treatment of those cells.
This technique reduces damage to healthy cells in the body and allows for earlier detection of disease.
Nanoparticles that deliver chemotherapy drugs directly to cancer cells can prevent loss of healthy cell, near to cancer cell and also it will be more
quick and accurate.
4. Fuel Cells,
5. Solar Cells Batteries,
8. Chemical Sensors
9. Cleaner Water
Also there are several important modern developments. The atomic force microscope (AFM) and the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) are
two early versions of scanning probes that launched nanotechnology
There are also various interesting peculiarities of Nanotechnology they are:
-Properties of the molecules changes as their size reach to the Nano scale (Like Homoeopathy)
-Physical properties of the molecule changes at the Nano scale i.e. insoluble material become soluble at this scale therefore they can even pass
through cell walls and can cause biochemical changes. (Like Homoeopathy)
-The particles at this size (Nano Particles) are very small and energetic, therefore reaches the site specifically
-These Nano particles or molecules (Like Homoeopathy) are very small but have high surface area to volume ratio and therefore allows many
functional groups to be attached to these Nano molecules (Like Homoeopathy)